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A chemical substance is a matter with a particular characteristic composition and constant chemical properties. In addition, a chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements because they are bound together by a molecule or a group of atoms known as a chemical bond. These bonds are what separate one chemical substance from another, but not the other way around. Therefore, it is necessary to break the chemical bonds of a chemical substance to separate its constituent elements.


The EPA’s regulatory program for chemicals involves implementing various legal statutes relating to human health and the environment. These laws have been designed to address varying chemical regulatory issues. Many require the EPA to consider the health risks associated with chemicals and to collect scientific data to inform their decisions. But in some cases, these laws fail to provide a definitive answer, and they remain controversial. This report will outline the basic procedures used by the agency to regulate chemicals and their effects.


The CAS is an acronym for Chemical Abstracts Service. It is the world’s largest repository of research on chemicals and related sciences. CAS innovations have spurred chemical research. The CAS database contains more than 500,000 compounds and is organized by chemical classes. Its data also includes CAS Registry Numbers, CAS Registry Names, and STN(r).

Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with the properties, synthesis, and behavior of chemical compounds that are not carbon-based. In contrast to organic chemistry, which deals with carbon-based compounds, inorganic chemistry focuses on non-carbon-based compounds. Here are the main types of chemical compounds that are studied in inorganic chemistry. All of these types of compounds have chemical properties. Here, we will examine the properties of each type.

Organic chemistry

What is organic chemistry? In simplest terms, it is the study of compounds that contain carbon. Unlike inorganic compounds, which have millions of compounds, organic compounds are formed only by the interactions of two or more atoms. Atoms are basic building blocks of chemistry and are divided into groups based on their properties. One of the groups is the substrate, and the other is the reagent. During an organic reaction, a substrate and reagent are exchanged. Substitution: A substitution occurs in which one group replaces another, usually via s bonds. This process is carried out because of the difference in electronegativities between two groups. For example, carbon is bonded to chlorine atoms via an a-carbon atom. A ss-carbon atom is chemically adjacent to it.


Isomers are chemical compounds that have identical molecular formulas but different arrangements of atoms. For example, two carbons and six hydrogens form the same chemical compound, but they are structurally different. The formula of a particular compound, C6H12, contains 25 structural isomers. One example is cyclohexane. It has a six-carbon ring structure with two hydrogens attached to each carbon.


A pictogram is a picture that conveys specific information about the hazards of a chemical substance. This picture may be an illustration of a symbol, border, or background pattern. These pictograms are usually associated with a chemical substance and its category. The standard assigns eight different pictograms to each hazard category. The phrase is often followed by information about the hazards of the chemical and how to avoid them.


The National Research Council has developed a decision framework for safer chemical alternatives. The U.S. EPA’s Design for the Environment program outlines the steps to alternative assessments and highlights guiding principles for green purchasing. The Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute has developed a methodology for alternatives assessment. This guidance outlines the steps to conduct a safe chemical assessment and includes checklists for decision makers. The Lowell Center also offers technical support and expertise to government agencies, businesses, and the advocacy community to promote the use of safer alternatives.